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Sinai Peninsula is the corridor between Africa and Asia. In Pharaonic times the "Way of Horus" & Land of Turquoise.

Later it became the way of Moses and under the mountain where he received the ten commandments is the monastery of St. Catherine. The monastery got special protection from Prophet Mohammed in year 625 and included in Unesco's World Heritage List in year 2002.

When the Holy Family sought protection in Egypt, they came via the North Coast road - and for North African Muslims on Pilgrimage to Mecca, this is their land road.

The peninsula's unique nature matches it's history with the Red Sea in south and the Mediterranean in north.

In-between 61,000 square kilometers of desert, mountains and smaller oases. In south the mountains reign while a limestone plateau covers the central area. In north the plateau slopes down to Mediterranean palm beaches.

Some few cities, but a majority of the population is wandering Bedouins where the camel still is an essential part of the society.
Safari to the Sinai peninsula ,the meeting place between the continents of Africa and Asia takes you from ancient turquoise mines to Bedouins in the mountain desert; from the ecosystems of the coral reefs and coastal sand dunes to a majestic view over Sinai from the top of Moses Mountain.

The most important Safari destinations:

Ain El Furtaga
16 km from Nuweiba by road. Palmy oasis at the crossroads of trails to the Coloured Canyon, Wadi Ghazala and Ain Khudra Oasis.

Ain Hudra Oasis
One of the loveliest oasis in Sinai. Nature has carved the sandstone to fascinating shapes. The yellow and brown of the desert canyon give way to green when reaching the Ain Hudra Oasis. Here we can explore the big palm trees forest and the gardens of olives, grapes and orange close to the spring of water. Bedouins have their little houses on the slopes leading up the mountain sides.

Ain Kid Oasis
14 km off the road between Sharm El Sheikh and Dahab; reached via Wadi Kid, a red-walled canyon where a spring appears in rainy years. The Oasis has a fresh-water well.

Prehistoric site with 5550-year-old graves and inscriptions

Wadi Ghazala
Named after the gazelle deer living there, it links Ain El Furtaga and Ain Hudra oasis. Acacia groves, dunes and gazelles are to be seen there.

Hamam Faraoun
It lies 55 km south of Ras Sudr ( Pharaoh’s Bath)

Wadi Widai
This area is a valley surrounded by Granite mountains of varying colours and shapes

Abu Galum
It is located in the north east of south Sinai, near by the Gulf of Aqaba. It’s area measures 500 square kilometers
Abu Galum is one of the picturesque nature reserves in the country. With its high mountains, narrow sinuous valleys (wadis), freshwater springs, coastal sand dunes, gravel alluvial fans, raised fossil coral reefs and low lying saline sabkha, it is not surprising that this small area of the Sinai peninsula houses 165 plant species.
Of these, 44 species are seen only in this reserve and tend to increase in density towards central and northern Sinai.
As a floristic frontier, Abu Galum reserve is a sensitive area that receives a high conservation priority. Access to regions without vehicle track systems can only be permitted where marked trails have been prepared.
The managed resource protected area at Abu Galum, covering an area of 400 km square, protects varied coastal and mountain ecosystems unique on the Gulf of Aqba. The area differs dramatically from the other reserves on the Gulf. The coastal area contains undisturbed coral reefs with high diversities of coral reef fish and associated fauna and flora. Evidence of the richness of the area could be seen on the shorelines covered with shells of various mollusk groups.
The reef at Abu Galum supports an active Bedouin artisanal fishery. The fishery is now being regulated by Egyptian Environmental Affairs Authority (EEAA) to reduce damage to the coral reef. The reef could be viewed at marked, safe access entry points.
Terrestrial areas in Abu Galum nature reserve park are a stark contrast to the exuberance of colour and life seen on the coral reef. Seemingly devoid of visible life, they are in fact home to the desert fox, Nubian Ibex (in the mountain areas), numerous small mammal species, reptiles and insects. Most of this fauna is difficult to see given their nocturnal habits. Foxes are often seen in the vicinity of Yolanda Beaches. They are harmless if approached with care; they should not be fed but can be provided with water. Fox cubs could be seen at sunset in springtime. All other wildlife should not be approached.
The park is also home to important resident bird populations including Grey Heron, Goliath Heron, Reef Heron and their small relative, the Greenback Heron. At least 5 groups pf Osprey (a fish-eating falcon) are resident and breeding annually. In summertime thousands of White Stork stop over in the park during their annual migration to East Africa.

Colored Canyon
It lies between St. Catherine's Monastery and the town of Nuweiba. It is a natural formation of sandstone and limestone of various colours worn away over the centuries by rains draining from the mountain top. Exquisite patterns have been formed of a myriad colours forming patterns of all shapes and sizes. Some resemble woodgrain – others surrealism paintings – but these are note man made. Different shapes and colours greet you upon every turn.
It has become a popular safari trek and The strange rock formations and the rainbow- hued colored canyon walls are dramatic and the silence within -only adds to the oddity. Great for walking or rock-climbing

Serabit El Khadem
While the Egyptians seem to have known, crossed and visited the Sinai even before the dynastic period, we have found little evidence of their building activities in the region. Of course, inhabitable areas are usually small, and scarce, and so have been inhabited and built upon continuously over the ages. It is probable that what was built has been built over many times. Today, wondering through the Sinai and viewing its unusual landscape, it is not difficult to imagine a land rich in minerals. Egyptians discovered its mineral wealth very early on, perhaps at the beginning of the dynastic period. Archaeologists have found that the very earliest known settlers in the Sinai, about 8,000 years ago, were miners. Drawn by the region's abundant copper and turquoise deposits, these groups slowly worked their way southward, hopping from one deposit to the next. By 3500 BC, the great turquoise veins of Serabit el-Khadem had been discovered.
The ancient mining complex of Serabit el-Khadem lies on a small plateau north of modern Al-Tor. It is located about halfway down the western coast about ten miles from Wadi Mughara. It was one of the most important sites for the Egyptians on the peninsula. Today, it is not difficult to reach the Serabit el-Khadem area, though the trip must be made by jeep. There are no paved roads to the base of the mountain. Although many of the region's pharaonic reliefs were destroyed by a British attempt to re-open the mines in the mid-nineteenth century, along the path to the temple are a number of engravings that were written by the ancient minors. Some of the most interesting portray the ships that would carry the turquoise to Egypt. There is also an excellent bas relief of King Sekhemkhet on the east face of the plateau, revealing him smiting Egypt's enemies. Other antiquities are found along the path, including ancient tunnels, miner's huts and stele.
The temple at Serabit el-Khadim, though really only scattered ruins, is one of the few phraonic monuments we know of in the Sinai. Here it was found the famous proto-Sinaitic script", which is believed to be an early precursor of the alphabet. These scripts were hieroglyphic signs used to write the names of the West Semitic names of the people who worked the mines, and keep account of their labors. They developed an alphabet with which they could record their Proto-Canaanite language. The script they developed is called Proto-Sinaitric (First-Sinaitic) and the language was a Pan-Canaanite language often called Old Hebrew
The Serabit El Khadim temple looks like a double series of steles leading to an underground chapel dedicated to the Hathor Goodness. Most of the temple’s large number of sanctuaries and shrines were dedicated to Hathor, among her many other attributes; she was the patron goddess of copper and turquoise miners. It is the only temple we know of, built outside mainland Egypt and mostly dedicated to Hathor. The earliest part of the main rock cut Hathor Temple, which has a front court and portico, dates to the 12th Dynasty The temple was probably founded by Amenemhet III, during a period of time when the mines were particularly active. The 12th Dynasty was a period of considerable mineral wealth for Egyptians and some of the finest jewelry from Egypt's past have been discovered in the tombs of 12th Dynasty women.
A number of scenes portray the role of Hathor in the transformation of the new king, upon ascending the throne, into the deified ruler of Egypt. One scene, for example, depicts Hathor suckling the pharaoh. Another scene from a stone tabled depicts Hathor offering the pharaoh the Ankh.
This older part of the temple was enlarged upon and extended by Queen Hatshepsut, along with Tuthmosis III and Amenhotep III during the New Kingdom. This was a restoration period for the mining operations after an apparent decline in the area during the Second Intermediate Period. These extensions are unusual for a temple in the manner in which they angled to the west off of the earlier structure.
On the north side of the of the temple is a shrine dedicated to the pharaohs who were deified in this region. On one wall of the shrine are numerous stele. A little to the south of the main temple we also find a shrine dedicated to the god of the eastern desert, Sopdu, which is smaller then the northern shrine.

Oyun Musa
Oyun Musa or “Springs of Moses” is located about 16 miles south of the Ahmed Hamdi Tunnel, which connects the mainland Egypt with Sinai. It is believed that this is the Springs of Moses. Moses is said to have, upon the advice of God, thrown a special tree into the brackish water which made it drinkable. Today the spring is still brackish, and there is no tree in sight, but seven of the original 12 springs still exist. During the Egypt Expedition we know that there were nine springs still active. At one point during the 19th century, this, the largest of the Sinai Oases, became a popular retreat for foreign diplomats. There is a small community that has grown up around the springs.

Ras Mohamed
Ras Mohamed is located at Gulf of Aqaba on an area of 480 square kilometers .
It is the headland at the southern most tip of the Sinai Peninsula, overlooking the juncture of the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba. The islands of Tiran and Sanafir are part of the site. Littoral habitats include a mangrove community, salt marshes, inter-tidal flats, a diversity of shoreline configurations and coral reef ecosystems that are internationally recognized as among the world's best. In addition a diversity of desert habitats such as mountains and wadis, gravel plains and sand dunes.
More than 200 species of corals, where 125 species are soft corals, around 1000 species of fish, 40 species of star fish, 25 species of sea urchins, more than a 100 species of mollusc and 150 species of crustaceans.
Ras Mohammed is important as a bottleneck for migratory soaring birds. The majority of the world populations of white stork Ciconia ciconia pass through this area. The islands of Tiran and Sanafir hold important breeding populations of the threatened and endemic White-eyed Gull Larus leucophthalamus and Osprey Pandion haliaetus. The island of Tiran has one of the largest recorded Osprey populations in the Red Sea. The threatened Green Turtle Chelonia mydas and Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata occur off Ras Mohammed regularly. The threatened mammal species include Dorcas Gazelle Gazella dorcas, Nubian Ibex Capra ibex nubiana
Tourism in Southern Sinai is inherently linked to the natural resources of the area. Degradation of these natural resources as a result of tourism or development activities is not in the best interests of investors or tourists.The Protected areas program seeks to establish equilibrium between development activities, tourism and the natural resource conservation measures needed to achieve sustainable economic development.
Due to Ras Mohamed’s geographical position, divers find almost permanent strong currents during all the year, which attracts larger fish. Beautiful beaches, extraordinary coral reefs and exciting dive sites make Ras Mohamed National Park a worthwhile visit.
Coral reef ecosystems found in the National Park are recognized internationally as among the world's best. This recognition is based primarily on the diversity of flora and fauna, clear warm water devoid of pollutants, their proximity to shorelines and their spectacular vertical profile. The reef exists as an explosion of color and life in stark contrast to the seemingly barren desert adjacent to it. In reality, the desert is rich in fauna, mainly nocturnal. These ecosystems are intrinsically linked and thus must be managed as a single unit.

The National Park offers outstanding coral reef and nature viewing experiences to the visitor.

Firan oasis
Over 12,000 palm trees, monastic remains, and access to Jebel Serbal. Wadi Firan may have been the route taken by the Israelites to reach Mount Sinai.

Geziret Faraoun
There are a number of forts in Egypt. The most famous of these is the Citadel in Cairo, but also notable is Fort Qaitbey in Alexandria, built on the location of the legendary Pharos Lighthouse. Probably the least known of the major forts is located on Pharaoh's Island in the Gulf of Aqba. This fortress would undoubtedly draw much larger crowds of tourists were it located in a more mainstream tourist destination, but tourists who make an effort to visit the fort will usually have the island mostly to themselves.
Pharaoh's Island, sometimes called Coral Island, or Geziret Faraoun, is the location of a Crusader fortress originally built by Baldwin I, the King of Jerusalem. From the top of the fortress, one can see four countries, including Egypt, Israel, Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Work apparently began on the fortress around 1116 AD. Baldwin built the Fortress for three reasons: First it was in the center of a huge trade route between the far East and Europe, second it was easily defendable, being out of range of land based catapults and was on high ground and third it was in the narrowest section of the Gulf of Aqaba.
At various times while in Crusader hands, it was used to collect taxes on Arab merchants, and sometimes to attack Arab shipping, while at the same time protecting pilgrims traveling between Jerusalem and St. Catherine's Monastery. The fortification was, however, captured by Salah ad-Din in about 1170. He expanded the fortress considerably and that it was possibly not abandoned until the 13th century and the Mamelukes and Ottomans probably further enhanced it.
The fortress, which is completely renovated, has many small rooms some with arched doorways and other without. These rooms included sleeping quarters for the troops, bath houses and kitchens with huge ovens . There are towers to house carrier pigeons, which were used for relaying messages in the Middle Ages and circular towers for archers.
Little else of the Fortress history is known. Obviously at least one important battle took place there, when Salah ad-Din took the Fortress from the Crusaders, but beyond that we really here of no major battles involving the fort.

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