The great temple of Abu
Simbel (Ramses II):
It is one of the many relics erected by the Pharaoh Ramses II
between 1300-1233 BC. It is distinguished by its main façade
with four colossal statues of Ramses II sit enthroned wearing
the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. On the doorway of the
temple, there is a beautiful inscription of the king’s name: Ser
Ma’at Ra, and between the legs of the colossal statues, we can
see smaller statues of Ramses II’s family: his mother
“Mutt-try”, his wife Nefertari and his sons and daughters.
Beyond their entrance there is the Great Hall of Pillars, with
eight pillars bearing the defied Ramses II in the shape of
The temple was dedicated to the sun god Ra’ Horakhti. The most
interesting being the Qadesh battle scene recording his
victories over the Hittites.
It was built on a strict east-west axis so that the morning sun
actually reached the innermost sanctuary at dawn. Illuminating
the statues of Ptah, Amon, Ramse II and Ra’ Horakhti twice a
year: February the 21st , the King’s birthday , and October the
22nd, the date of his coronation.
It is still a mystery to archaeologists how the ancient
Egyptians could have designed and built such miraculous